The melting polar ice is one of the most visible signs of global warming. And now researchers have discovered that there are volcanic tubes under the ice, which can cause the ice to melt even faster. All in all, scientists from Edinburgh University have discovered 91 new volcanoes under the ice along the coast in western Antarctica.
Volcanoes emit many substances that we would call 'pollution' if they came from traffic and factories. For example, Etna in Sicily emits as much sulfur per year as the total French heavy industry put together. But volcanoes have always done that, so that in their environment there live species that thrive.
1. Magma travels for miles under the ground © Getty Images If a volcano crater fills up with magma, this can travel a considerable distance. US geologists were monitoring a large area around a volcano in Nicaragua with radar measurements from satellites. It turned out that the magma caused over 6 miles of elevations of 6-7 centimeters.
Of all the celestial bodies in the solar system that we know, Jupiter's moon Io is by far the most active. There are hundreds of active volcanoes on Io, and sometimes the eruptions are so intense that the volcanic material is shot at least 400 kilometers into space. The surface of Io is completely covered with lava in a million years and has been renewed thousands of times.
The power of a volcano eruption is indicated on the VEI (volcano explosivity index), comparable to the more famous Richter Scale for earthquakes. With VEI 0, magma flows smoothly away, without explosions and ash formation. Such eruptions occur regularly in Hawaii. A VEI 8 eruption, on the other hand, is 'mega colossal': a global disaster in which more than 1000 cubic kilometers of magma are released into the air and form an at least 25-kilometer-high ash column, which the earth can envelop for decades in the dark, and allow global temperatures valleys and half continents below the axis.
A volcano is only dangerous if there are people living nearby for whom it can be dangerous. The Mount Erebus in Antarctica, which has been constantly erupting since 1972, is therefore harmless. Furthermore, a volcano is more dangerous as it erupts more violently or explosively. Around 50 volcanoes erupt every year.
The gigantic super volcano beneath Yellowstone National Park in the US is fueled by other geological forces than previously thought. This appears from new computer simulations. Until recently, scientists thought that the source of the super volcano was a hot spot: a magma channel that extends all the way to the interior of the earth.
This article provides an overview of volcanoes and volcano types on Earth. You can immediately scroll down to the information you are looking for or read the entire article to find out everything about one of the most fascinating natural phenomena on our planet. What are volcanoes? Volcanoes are the pressure valves of the earth.
Volcanoes are a major geological threat and can cause enormous destruction worldwide. With a so-called super-eruption, 1000 gigatons of volcanic material is thrown into the air and entire continents can be covered with a layer of ash. Material will also end up in the atmosphere, as a result of which the global climate can be upset for decades.
A hidden volcano world can melt more than 2 million cubic kilometers of ice in West Antarctica. Until 2017, only 47 volcanoes were known in that part of the South Pole, but thanks to a groundbreaking discovery, that number has now been increased to 138. So the ice-cold continent is one of the largest volcanic areas on earth - which worries researchers.
North Korea is literally playing with fire now that the country is conducting illegal underground nuclear tests time and time again. And the military confrontation with the US is not the scariest - the explosions can wake the powerful super volcano Paektusan on the border with China from its slumber. North Korea tested its first nuclear weapon in 2006.
PROBLEM: Vibrations lead to mega-eruption When the super volcano Toba erupted 74,000 years ago in Indonesia, 2800 cubic kilometers of material were thrown into the air and all sunlight was blocked for six to eight years. Eruptions from super volcanoes are difficult to predict, because they are not conical in shape like regular volcanoes, but have more extensive magma chambers.
1. An eruption can come soon The next super-eruption of Yellowstone can come much earlier than we thought. Scientists announced this at a recent volcano conference. They have analyzed crystals from the fossil ash deposits of Yellowstone. Those crystals are 631 during the last super-eruption.
Volcanic eruptions occur on many celestial bodies and can look just like on earth. When the volcanoes erupt on Mars, Venus and probably Mercury, molten rock, gases and ash are released and a conical crater is formed, just like on Earth. On the Jupiter Moon Io volcanoes also spew liquid rock, but the acceleration on the small moon is so small that a mountain can form that protrudes hundreds of kilometers above the surface.
Magma has been on the road for 100 million years © Mike Mezeul II / Ritzau Scanpix Around 1000 ° C hot lava flows from the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. Part of the glowing mass has been on the road for 3,000 kilometers and 100 million years from the border between the mantle and the core of the earth. ### A seething column in the sea The collision between the seabed and the earth plates feeds most of the volcanoes on earth, but not those of Hawaii.
Volcanoes seemed to erupt in two ways: either the lava slowly runs away or the volcano explodes and spits out the lava. But New Zealand and British researchers found a third type, tangaroa, where the lava comes out in bubbles. Volcano spits out special stones They looked at the bottom around the Macauley submarine volcano in the Pacific Ocean.
The eruption of the Tambora in 1815 was so fierce that the climate was affected everywhere on earth. The temperature dropped worldwide, and 1816 became known as the "year without summer." © SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Number of deaths: 117,000 Explosiveness: 7 on a VEI scale * Ash cloud: 160 km 3 The outbreak of the Krakatau in 1883 led to large tsunamis, killing two thirds of the inhabitants of the volcanic island.
Volcanic ash is not as we know from the burning of organic substances, because the material that comes out of a volcano in large clouds does not meet that definition. The fine particles from a volcano are usually called ashes, because they resemble ashes and behave as ashes. But they are formed in a completely different way.
Unexpectedly and for the first time since 1972, the Calbuco volcano erupted in southern Chile. He now sends ash and smoke into the air for miles. A huge ash cloud comes out of the opening of the volcano, and therefore the authorities have evacuated an area with a radius of 20 kilometers around the volcano.
In the Alban Hills (Colli Albani), a volcanic area with an idyllic crater lake and fertile soil, many rich Roman families have a house. It is only 30 kilometers to the center of the bustling city, and the volcano is not nearly as dead as the population and science have thought for thousands of years.
The earth is constantly moving. The tectonic plates are shifting, and new islands are emerging from the sea. Every world atlas must therefore be regularly updated. All these movements are particularly noticeable in volcanic islands such as the Galapagos. _The Galapagos are known for their rich, unique fauna, although they are relatively arid volcanic islands.